Stop 2: Battle on Vražda

Monument to the Battle on Vražda created historian of Starý Smolivce Mr. Karel Kabátník and in 2011 he, together with the employees and citizens of the municipality Mladý Smolivec built on the spot, where was the battle in 1620.

Here are fought and died

The dispute Czech state (nobles, knights and royal cities) with the Emperor Matthias dragged on for years. It was the freedom of religion confirmed Majesty Rudolf II. in 1609 the power of the Assembly to decide on the frequency and amount of taxes in the Czech Kingdom and the right to vote Bohemian king. The Habsburgs were contrary pursuing hereditary rights to the Czech throne and absolute power. Strengthen the central court offices in Vienna and persistently thwarted session feudal assemblies. In May 1618 Matyáš convening gentry directly banned. Despite of that, the nobility convened assembly and turned their anger at first on Prague’s vicegerents Slavata and Martinic.  On 23th 5 1618 they threw them out of the Prague Castle´s window with the scribe Fabricius. Incident subsequently resulted in armed conflict - Protestant nobility against the emperor. In the head of estate opposition government was elected 30 directors. Infuriated the Emperor Matthias rented, for money supplied by Spain to conquer the Czechs, hired army colonel Dampier and Karel Bonaventura Buquoy. Czech lords have responded recruitment of the troops. The command was entrusted Matyáš Thurn. In addition, they had hired a mercenary army experienced warrior Arnošt Mansfeld. It started attacking each other. Success is alternated with failure on both sides. Mansfeld lost the battle with the imperial at Záblatí, but recharged and humbled 22nd November 1618 Catholic Plzeň. Buquoy occupied Krumlov and Budejovice, but in autumn 1618 he was driven back. Czech estates army under the leadership of Thurn in June 1619 threatened Vienna. After the death of Matyáš  took the throne and the imperial throne Ferdinand II, Graz, bigoted Catholic and a supporter of a drastic solution. The chances of an amicable settlement fell. Czech states did not accept this election and as King of Bohemia chose utraquist Fridrich of the Palatinate. The rebellion against the king extended to all countries, the Czech crown. The conflict dragged on and in late summer 1920, the card began to turn in favor of the emperor, with the backing of the Imperial Catholic League and thus the troops of Maximilian of Bavaria for the promise of the post elector, which been took away to Fridrich of the Palatinate. Czechs gained from co-religionists just empty promises. They owed salary to army for several months. The mercenaries threatened that, they without money will not fight, which have a decisive battle on Bílá Mountain complied.

In the autumn of 1620 launched a combined Imperial and Catholic army troops crusade from the Danube to Prague. Czech estates army in the number of 20,000 men was led by Kristián of Anhalt quickly shifted from southern Moravia over Jindřichův Hradec and Tábor. On 29th September 1620 arrived in Milevsko. The combined imperial army numbered 28,000 men together and encamped in Písek. There were massacred all the men and their raging surprised even their commander. They decided to proceed to Plzeň, occupied by Mansfeld in the service of Czech estate. Buquoy moved over Blatna and Lnáře, his companion Maximilian over Strakonice, Horažďovice and Zelená Hora. On Sunday 4th October was Buquoy in Lnáře. Anhalt with the Czech army encamped that day in Bělčice, where came to visit him the king Frederich of the Palatinate. Again, promised early payment owed wages. Here also it was decided to take advantage of weakened opponent after its division into two streams and marching to attack him.

Battle of Old Smolivec

On Monday, 5 10th 1620, sixteen thousands of military groupings imperial way of Pilsen moved into the area of present village Mladý Smolivec. Walking musketeers and pikemen accompanied by many carriers with military material and with attack core drivers with eight thousand horses. Half of the troops occupied the villages Mladý Smolivec and Radošice. The second half went over Předmíř and Metly in Starý Smolivce. With their horses filled every sort of meadow near, the soldiers filled all local houses and the hill from Strašků in Mladý Smolivec over Hory and Korbelák after Radošický hillock. In the night got Buquoy message that is coming from Hvožďany Czech army and that there is a danger of attack. In view of that fact, he commanded to change the direction of the march and in the morning went as early as possible to meet the Catholic League army to Zelená Hora. On Tuesday 6th October 1620 in the morning Anhalt troops actually in the direction of Formanska path launched a quick attack. On a hill not far away, in place where today stands a stone cross of conciliation (about three hundred meters east), attacked the rear of imperial troops. In the turmoil of combat using firearms and stabbing weapons, the Estates through numerical superiority managed to push the retreating imperial adversaries to this side. Retreating only here found that having a bad option to escape. It becomes the barrier narrow road and the only ford across the creek, stuffed by carriages. The pound stood, adjacent to the hill, in their way. Also unusually high yield extending to the south was unpleasant bait. There was burning forest in the valley on the right bank of the river. From this situation become panic, what wish to attackers. Horses, carriages and disoriented imperial groups were easy target for attacking. After the fight were left on the fields on both sides of the path to the Starý Smolivec, on the side of the river and near the 200 deaths, the same number of variously suffered severe injuries. Space was also full of killed and seriously injured horses, often harnessed in the abandoned carts.

It wasn´t easy job removed all remnants. Villages were small in that time. Starý Smolivec had barely 90 souls. The winners took care only about funeral officers on the hill above Smolivec. Ordinary infantrymen were buried, only about ten meters to the right from this he slope, one third of the height, viewed from below. Horses usually dug on the place of death. Their legs and hooves were once more after years sometimes ploughed up. Last to happen during deep ploughing after deployment plough pulled by a tractor belt. After the Battle, Estates follow enemy. Imperial went through Čížkov back to the original way direction to Plzeň, through Poříčí which they burned. Then they briefly camped in Černcice and Litice. The Estate did only interfere them, in the way of the Prague. They stopped in Rokycany.

8th November 1620 come to decisive encounter in battle on Bílá Hora. Mercenaries in the service of Czech Estates, which weren´t pay, escape from the fight. The consequences of defeat in this battle were disastrous. Execution of 27 Czech lords followed the expropriation of participants in the rebellion. The country had to leave all utraquist priests, as well as the nobles who remained utraquit. The subjects had to stay to the execution of statute labour. They had to change to a single religion, to the Catholic religion, only permitted. After the Czech war 1618 1620 followed the War of Palatinate 1621 - 1623. Danish War of 1625 - 1629, conflict reached the final in the years 1630 - 1648 in the Swedish war.

Obec Mladý Smolivec, Mladý Smolivec 95, 335 01 Nepomuk, telefon: 371 585 145,

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